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Lauren Estate

Lauren Estate

Approaches Of Turning Money Indicates Into Investments. Sources Belonged To He Investments Inside The Objects Of Industrial

Approaches of turning cash means into investments. Sources belonged to he investments within the objects of industrial and nonindustrial spheres, mostly come out within the initial type of cash means. Turning of these newest into the investments could be provided in diverse methods. The easiest way takes location in the case, when industrial subject manages and owns definite means, uses them for widening and improvement of production and also for creation of nonindustrial objects. Within the resembling form savings of those persons, which start actions with own savings turn into investments. Although, in other situations turning savings into investments can be a hard process. The fact is, that most component of the population has no opportunity to offer investments straight into the production, because for this they must have manners of enterprise administration, and needless to say, own definite minimal amount for this or those reasons. Part of the enterprise profit also doesn't turn into the investments. Herewith, form 1 side, population and some enterprises own free of charge money sources, from yet another, numerous enterprises require extra means for their investment program realization. Transmission of sources is realized by the channels of monetary industry, where owners of cash indicates appear to be the distributors of investment capital, and those persons, who influx sources – customers. Basic channels for transmission of cash indicates from distributors to buyers. Based on how transmission of money means is realized from distributor to the buyers, we can point out two basic channels at the financial market. Very first will be the market of banking credits. Banks accumulate temporarily cost-free money indicates of the juridical and physical persons. Needless to say, they pay definite percents in the influxed sources and later give credits to the borrowers (to those ones, who offer actual investments) for high percent. Thus, approach of cash movement from the owner, to the borrower is realized using the aid of a bank. In a lot of instances such way of transmission of the money indicates answers towards the interests of the money owner. Though this most recent takes too little percent from the bank, but thus he/she avoids the danger of not returning of income from the borrower. Except security, banking deposits are high liquidate, as the depositor can take own quantity out and also investment of cash indicates is reachable even for the smallest depositors (owners of the savings). Bank pays really little percent towards the depositors comparing with those it takes from the borrowers, that’s why it is natural, that the distributor has a desire to invest capital specifically into the relation with these borrowers. As to the capital customers (borrowers), it really is benefit for them to obtain in direct touch with distributors. The truth is that obtaining banking credit is typically followed by wonderful difficulties. As an example, frequently the bank doesn’t lend credit inside the term, that is necessary by the borrower; the bank might not have total quantity requested by the borrower, for realization of the large-scale projects and so on. All these lead us towards the large-scaled realization of attracting free of charge money sources together using the banking credit by capital shoppers in other way – by emission of securities. Somehow this way answers the interests of distributor of investment resources and their customers. Distributors of resources (owners of savings) frequently are in a position to invest their sources in reasonably advantage conditions, then banking deposits are and for longer time frame. Fairly easy process of placement of sources is realized in the way of selling and buying of securities. Also, if securities are characterized by really high degree of liquidity, then the investor can invest wasted sources by selling own securities if needed. From the point of investment resources consumers’ view emission of securities has priority fairly to the banking credits. Hey (capital shoppers) are given chance to influx money sources from a great deal of distributors of capital and accumulate big amount of income. Also, sources might be influxed for lengthy time period, at times for indefinite terms, if the affair touches upon securities. Thus, industry of banking credits and industry of securities within the modern day conditions appear to be needed rings for investment processes, fundamental areas, with the help of which savings are turned into investments and are used for development of the production. As stated above, depending at objects of capital investments they separate genuine, monetary and intellectual investments (drought five.7.). Under real investments they mean placement of sources (capital) into creation of real assets (as of material, so immaterial ones), which are in touch using the realization of operative actions of economical subjects, salvation of their social-economical difficulties. Under monetary investments they mean placement of capital into various economic instruments, in the first place into the securities. Financial investments either have speculative character, or are oriented towards long-termed investments. They recognize to be the type of monetary investment placements of sources into shares and securities, also into the loan banking deposits. Financial investment oriented towards long-termed placements of sources is associated with strategic goals of participation inside the management of the investor’s object, in which the capital is invested. Fictive capital. Concepts of real and monetary investments are in close touch using the ones of genuine and fictive capital. Within the economical literature they typically mean securities under fictive capital. Actual capital is placed into production and securities serve for the title of property, which represent this capital. Economic capital is “the capital which exists inside the face of securities, bring profit towards the owners. Distinct from real capital, that is placed into different fields of the business, fictive one has no inner value and is just not considered to be genuine wealth, that’s why it has no function in the method of capitalist further production.and, in accordance with this, we need to pay attention towards the following: for each and every separate owner securities (fictive capital) represent valuable, which brings to him definitely real income. Although, from the point social capital securities don’t represent actual prosperity. Growth or reduction of the value of functioning securities within the society may possibly take place independently from real capital. Based on this, securities appear to be a fictive capital. Actual capital of the society is grown at the expense of investments into the true assets, whilst fictive capital may be elevated with no economic investments, in the expense obviously value of the securities emitted earlier. A substantial example of the approach of fictive capital growth is approach of emission of the so-called produced securities. Here they don’s take into account actual investments, but they give rights for buying securities already produced or emitted earlier. In this case financial investments are followed by the growth of real capital of the society. Although, to our thoughts, this subject is just not so effortless, as it appears. The fact is that growth of the share course is realized not itself, but by the fact that the effectiveness of making use of true capital is growing. The growth of course value of the enterprise shares expresses the reality, that the market provides too high estimation of the given enterprise. Herewith, we can make a conclusion, that fictive capital is just not a genuine wealth; it provides advertising and marketing estimation of real capital of the society in every given period of time. Think about that we have two enterprises with completely identical true assets, though 1 enterprise utilizes these assets better and works a lot more successfully. It is evident, that course worth of the shares of this enterprise is higher, then those of other ones. That’s why fictive capital is getting grown not itself, but expresses the position of actual capital. Size of fictive capital is absolutely nothing but the marketing and advertising value of the actual capital, the title of that is fictive capital considered to be. Herewith it's tough to agree with, that “fictive capital acts no function inside the method of capital further production”. Securities (a fictive capital) play important role within the approach of further production whilst turning of the savings into investments. A fictive capital (securities) makes income for its owners. Precisely the desire of generating profit makes the owners of the savings to invest sources into securities. Amounts gathered by the issuerare utilised for creation and purchasing of the genuine assets, accordingly the growth of the volume of production takes location. Movement of financial investments reminds us the movement of loan capital. As K. Marx showed us, inside the approach of movement of loan capital 1 along with the identical capital amount appears inside the degree of capital-owner and capital-function. Income of the functional capitalist is divided into two parts – into the loan percent along with the income of the clerk. Under the conditions of weak development of the joint-stock business free of charge capital was put into the production within the form of loan capital. Genuine investments in the production are realized at the expense of own and loan capital from the functioning capitalists. By realization of the joint-stock form of the enterprise the character of the investment process is essentially changed. In this case, they mean the joint-stock organization may possibly understand genuine investments in the expense of own sources (indivisible profit) or at the expense of banking credits. So, that they don’t apply for the monetary investments. Although, it is various in the case of joint-stock organization. Whilst foundation of the joint-stock organization the founders are enter property, money means, and intellectual property into the initial capital. Each deposit is estimated in the cash form and each and every founder purchases a definite package of shares for proper share, that is entered into the initial capital of the society. Quantity of 1 and also the identical investments turns into real or economic investments. the approach of actual capital growth is followed by the growth of fictive capital. Herewith, in this case genuine investments can not be realized without having share emission, i.e. with no economic investments. In the case of growing initial capital of the joint-stock organization emission of new shares is taking location, then it is followed by genuine investments. Therefore, financial investments are deemed to be needed attributes for the investment procedure. Genuine investments are impossible with no monetary ones. Actual investments take completed face by realization of economic investments. Widening of the production could be realized, also by the borrowed sources, which are influxed using the assist of emission of the loan securities. Consequently, even in this case the process of actual investments is realized with the support of financial investments. We have distinct situation, when we apply for secondary industry of the securities. If the investors purchase shares for already activated enterprise, then sources wasted for purchasing shares already are investments. But these sources get to the previous owner of the shares that’s why growth of the true capital of the enterprise doesn’t take place. It really is exact same with the buying of securities of any kind at the secondary market. In this case (if the course of securities aren't grown) the growth of fictive capital of the society doesn’t take place. Only the distribution of fictive capital among the members of society takes place. Thus, economic investments, that are realized inside the forms of purchasing securities at the secondary industry, are regarded as to be relatively independent form and it's not directly associated using the method of actual investments. AB_pos = "intext";
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Based on the said above, we can make the following conclusion: monetary investment may be the connecting ring of turning of the savings into actual investments. With its aid the savings get into the production; in the same time they are able to appear to be relatively independent form of the investments. Foreseeing the truth, that nowadays joint-stock business is considered to be quite spread, organization-legislative form of the enterprise; we could come to conclusion, that monetary investments and security market play extremely critical role in the investment process on the way of turning savings into true investments. Intellectual investment definition. Investment market is actually a tough program consisted of different structural elements, amongst which there is a many connection. Scheme (within the drought five.8.) represents a clear example about structure of the world investment marketplace. As observed from the matter, investment objects are divided into financial and material (actual) assets. Each of them has fairly diversified structure. Monetary assets concern economic and payment obligations of every kind, that are basically produced by the economical agents even though their function. This really is money funds; deposits existed in the present accounts, short-termed loan obligations, for instance, shares as well as other economic documentation, which prove the property of proper at the capital or setting arrangement in the movement of monetary resources. Material assets are: movable and unmovable property, lend, buildings, precious metals, commodities of long-termed usage, material valuables or inventory having short-terms of produced service and so on. Modern structure of investment, in the first location, expresses substantial surplus of the monetary assets at material ones (accordingly 57.7% and 42.3%), ant second, in the structure of economic assets itself securities, short-termed obligations and accounts having investment character occupy much more and much more bigger location. Correlation of monetary and material assets of the investment marketplace may be expressed by the coefficient of economic interrelation. Thought of involving such coefficient belongs to R. Goldsmith, who's the author of the works written concerning the structure of national wealth and monetary systems of developed countries. This scientist in the second part of 50s and beginning of 60s worked out the method of calculation of the coefficient of interrelation. He calculated this coefficient as conformity of total financial assets with the size of material assets received by deducing of the country net foreign assets. Net foreign assets show conformity of foreign debt of the given country and its residents with the 1, that are owned by the foreign country and its residents towards this county. Citizens, firms and other juridical persons have correct to have accounts abroad, to give credits towards the foreign citizens and to have property abroad. Also, they're achievable to obtain in debts themselves towards the foreign citizens. If the size of foreign property and financial wealth of the nation resident surpluses debts towards the foreigners, then net foreign assets appear to be positive size and on the contrary. According to the investment nature, which basic kinds of the investment industry – monetary and material ones, or the genuine investment markets within the modern day conditions may be added by the market of intellectual investments. This latest functions within the way of licenses, engineering-consulting service, Now-how, scientific processing, sales and buying of projects and others. As in the advertising economics, so in the transmitting stage, alternative variants of utilizing resources, investment resources among them. The principle of inter altering touch upon the realized investments as inside the material types, so within the human capital. It is nicely identified that under the modern day conditions investment inside the human capital is extremely critical and provides a significant profit. This can be stated in several economical works.K. Sax and F. Lauren point to the investments into the human capital. They notice that investments into the human capital have an excellent significance for marketing and advertising economics.These days a theory of intellectual capital makes foundation towards the realization of investments into the human capital.The authors of this theory concern, that intellectual capital is really a challenging category. It's wider than the human capital, as in it info is deemed to be the independent industrial resource.Investments into the intellectual capital differ from the ones realized into the human capital. It also concerns the elements of structural capital, which indicates investments realized into the furniture, computers, programs, patents and trade marks. On the basis of intellectual capital theory a idea of social partnership was formed. This conception leans upon the investments placed into the social capital. Social capital theory means relations of mutual support and development of trust relation within the separate groups or readiness of participation within the unions. A lot more educated and qualified workers have far more possibilities for formation of social capital and economical macro-system. On the basis of investments realized subjective leaders of attractive investment surrounding is formed inside the social capital, that influence drastically upon the development of intellectual investment industry. Intellectual investment market has the following peculiarities: First, intellectual investment marketplace will be the consisting component of service industry. It offers realization of certain commodity by straight contracts among producers and customers. Herewith, trade mediating is not the exception. Though there's a principle distinction among mediating and consuming commodities in the market of intellectual investments. Analyzes of different researches show, that in the conditions of transitional period growth of the share of mediator structures in the section of consuming commodity of massive request take place in Georgia. The mediator just isn't requested to have a particular expertise, only initial info is sufficient. Needless to say, mediating in the industry of intellectual investments calls for high qualification degree of the firms’ specialists. The mediators themselves, which unite “producer-consumers”, are not numerous. Herewith, mediator service in the industry of intellectual investments is various form analogue service of the marketplace of enormous request commodities within the equal conditions by quality and effectiveness (in the expense of reducing expenses of the interested sides). Second, the industry of intellectual investment influences greatly upon capital movement as well as the industry of labor forces. Third, intellectual investments are protected by the state from the foreign competition, also by export and import of final result of employing intellectual investments. Functioning of the marketplace of intellectual investments cannot exist without having protection of rights at the objects of intellectual property. Fourth, for entering international marketplace by inner market organizations and intellectual investments additional are not necessary. Fifth, formation of market values is distinct at the outcomes of using intellectual investments. Values of intellectual investment merchandise have not direct connection with the work spent on it. The value of intellectual investment product is defined by what it provides by using inside the production process. Herewith, worth of intellectual investment process is defined as expression of effect received by this item usage by money. Industry worth in the intellectual investment product is formed as agreement one, by making use of two costs (of seller and purchaser). The purchaser may possibly apply for the fact that a profit received from employing intellectual investment product, minimally, is always to compensate the expenses made by the seller for selling this item and also expanses of the buyer for its realization. The seller doesn’t usually sell the intellectual investment product, but transmits only the proper for its utilizing. Therefore, agreement value on this production is close to the buyers’ 1 in practice. Realization of intellectual investments in the industry might be provided inside the following types: - by transmitting rights for utilizing licenses, Now-How, commodity sighs and so on; - by selling-transmission of Now-How, technological experiences and so on. Agreements on such acts of sell and purchase from license agreements are distinct by the truth, that the owner of Now-How doesn’t refuse its selling, but doesn’t agree with its patenting; - by providing engineering services; - by transmission of technologies, in the way investment partnership, inside the bounds of which takes place not only sell and obtain, but in other methods of its distribution consultations, qualifying specialists, transmission of droughts and technological exchanges. Engineering is one of the basic forms of realization are the market of intellectual investments. It means providing distinct engineering-consulting service on the commercial basis. They divide engineering service into two groups: 1) service associated with preparing production approach; 2) service associated with provision of typical continuing of the process of production and its realization. To the 1st group belong: a) pre-projecting service (social-economical researches; topographic processing and preparing of location; researching grounds; looking for the minerals; technical-economical statement of project and so on); b) projecting service (preparing general strategy and recommendations; estimation of expenses made on its exploitation beforehand; preparing technical specialists and so on); c) further service of he project (preparing contracting documentation; organization of auction; estimation of suggestions; creating contracts; managing developing procedure; making and granting certificates about finishing function, generating technical conclusion about developing and so on); d) unique service (researching about utilization, a variety of juridical procedures and so on). To the second group of engineering service belong: service associated with the managing and organization of the production process, service associated with the examination of the object; consultations within the monetary questions; service associated using the production realization (researching the conjuncture of the marketplace, advertisement organization), service associated with the involving the program of informational provision and so on. Engineering consultations, inside the conditions of deficit of high-qualified personnel, can provide intellectually the investment method, aid firms to rise effectiveness, fasten circulation of the investment resources. Portfolio investment industry is the consisting portion of the monetary investment industry. By forming society of share-holders and using the assist of monetary institutional investors, their activity in the monetary investment market assistance significantly accumulation of independent money sources in the country, also attracting of foreign investors, fastened circulation of economic investments, effective insurance for financial-investment risks and so on. For clearing investment motivations up and defining levers is state influence we factor advisable discussion of peculiarities of the investment circulation in the procedure of further production of material (fundamental and turnover) and monetary capitals. Investment circulation within the procedure of investment activity is realized in the following fundamental directions: investments in the material assets (production of simple and turnover capital); investments in monetary assets; investments inside the intellectual valuables. Let’s talk about investment circulation in the method of further production of the material assets (simple and turnover capitals). Its every element could be divided into movable and immovable properties. Furniture, mechanisms, turnover capital belongs to the elements of movable physical capital and elements of passive portion of standard capital (buildings, equipment, industrial infrastructure) – to the unmovable 1. Further production of the movable physical capital is realized inside the industry, and of unmovable ones – within the creating. Investment activity might be realized within the way of showing of unmovable property, furniture as well as other elements of physical capital in the marketplace, or in the case of absence of necessary commodity, in the way of their production (developing). Investment activity could be realized at the expense of various sources: own, borrowed, attracted sources for investments, budgetary assignations. Structure of sources depends at organization legislative forms of active and newly formed enterprise. Investments could be displayed as within the money, material forms so inside the face of property rights and intellectual potential. Foreseeing said above, investment circulation within the further production of a physical capital might be represented within the following way: Economical essence of the given chain of transformation exists within the following: investments in various for (cash, productive, commodity) are placed into the objects of investment requests for industrial activity. After this a approach of transformation of investments into industrial factors takes place. Thus materialization of investments takes location, which appears inside the face of rising value of investor’s capital property. Precisely the new transformation of capital value finishes investment circulation within the Soviet economical literature. They departed artificially stage of formation of new capital worth and stage of their functioning, which defines true degree of income of profitableness of these valuables, and finally the period of self-compensation of investments. As primary goal of investment are generating profit, investment circulation certainly concerns a period of exploitation of bought capital valuables till the moment of financial recourses, by which investments within the capital production are compensated. In this case, production, that is produced in the form of investment commodity, is realized at the markets of diverse investments (genuine estate, furniture, supplies and other markets). What exactly is the distinction in between investments and investment commodity, as they coincide with one another in the material form and capability of producing income? To our mind, standard distinction is inside the “universality” degree of investments and investment commodity. Any investment commodity for realization at the markets in the future becomes a factor of production in concrete material or cash forms. Material transformation of a capital doesn’t mean further production, it may be even threadbare – morally and physically, and investments, as they are movable type of cash capital – may possibly make endless and permanent profit. To our mind, this makes investments diverse from the investment commodity. Investments into the monetary assets take place in relation with their profitableness norms. Income, in accordance with the distinct financial assets, is divided into dividends (type of industrial income) and percents. This is defined by what capital they represent – industrial or loan. A process of investments into the economic assets could possibly be represented within the following way: First, intellectual investment industry is the consisting part of service marketplace. It provides realization of particular commodity by straight contracts among producers and consumers. Herewith, trade mediating isn't the exception. Although there is a principle distinction in between mediating and consuming commodities at the industry of intellectual investments. Analyzes of various researches show, that inside the conditions of transitional period growth of the share of mediator structures in the section of consuming commodity of massive request take place in Georgia. The mediator isn't requested to have a particular information, only initial details is sufficient. Obviously, mediating in the marketplace of intellectual investments demands high qualification degree of the firms’ specialists. The mediators themselves, which unite “producer-consumers”, are not a lot of. Herewith, mediator service at the marketplace of intellectual investments is various form analogue service of the industry of enormous request commodities within the equal conditions by good quality and effectiveness (in the expense of reducing expenses of the interested sides). Second, the industry of intellectual investment influences significantly upon capital movement along with the marketplace of labor forces. Third, intellectual investments are protected by the state from the foreign competition, also by export and import of final result of using intellectual investments. Functioning of the market of intellectual investments can't exist with out protection of rights at the objects of intellectual property. Fourth, for entering international industry by inner market organizations and intellectual investments additional aren't essential. Fifth, formation of industry values is distinct at the results of using intellectual investments. Values of intellectual investment goods have not direct connection with the work spent on it. The worth of intellectual investment item is defined by what it gives by making use of in the production approach. Herewith, worth of intellectual investment method is defined as expression of impact received by this item usage by income. Market worth at the intellectual investment item is formed as agreement 1, by making use of two costs (of seller and purchaser). The purchaser may apply for the reality that a profit received from employing intellectual investment product, minimally, is to compensate the costs created by the seller for selling this product and also expanses of the buyer for its realization. The seller doesn’t usually sell the intellectual investment product, but transmits only the right for its making use of. Therefore, agreement value on this production is close to the buyers’ 1 in practice. Realization of intellectual investments at the marketplace may be provided inside the following types: - by transmitting rights for employing licenses, Now-How, commodity sighs and so on; - by selling-transmission of Now-How, technological experiences and so on. Agreements on such acts of sell and purchase from license agreements are distinct by the truth, that the owner of Now-How doesn’t refuse its selling, but doesn’t agree with its patenting; - by delivering engineering services; - by transmission of technologies, in the way investment partnership, inside the bounds of which takes location not only sell and acquire, but in other methods of its distribution consultations, qualifying specialists, transmission of droughts and technological exchanges. Engineering is one of the basic types of realization are the marketplace of intellectual investments. It means offering different engineering-consulting service on the commercial basis. They divide engineering service into two groups: 1) service related with preparing production method; 2) service related with provision of typical continuing of the process of production and its realization. To the first group belong: a) pre-projecting service (social-economical researches; topographic processing and planning of location; researching grounds; looking for the minerals; technical-economical statement of project and so on); b) projecting service (preparing general strategy and recommendations; estimation of expenditures made on its exploitation beforehand; preparing technical specialists and so on); c) further service of he project (preparing contracting documentation; organization of auction; estimation of suggestions; generating contracts; managing developing approach; generating and granting certificates about finishing work, creating technical conclusion about creating and so on); d) special service (researching about utilization, numerous juridical procedures and so on). Towards the second group of engineering service belong: service related with the managing and organization of the production approach, service related with the examination of the object; consultations within the financial questions; service associated with the production realization (researching the conjuncture of the market, advertisement organization), service related using the involving the program of informational provision and so on. Engineering consultations, inside the conditions of deficit of high-qualified personnel, can give intellectually the investment process, support firms to rise effectiveness, fasten circulation of the investment resources. Portfolio investment market is the consisting part of the monetary investment marketplace. By forming society of share-holders and with the help of financial institutional investors, their activity in the financial investment industry support considerably accumulation of independent cash sources within the nation, also attracting of foreign investors, fastened circulation of economic investments, effective insurance for financial-investment risks and so on. For clearing investment motivations up and defining levers is state influence we thing advisable discussion of peculiarities of the investment circulation in the procedure of further production of material (fundamental and turnover) and economic capitals. Investment circulation within the method of investment activity is realized inside the following fundamental directions: 1. investments within the material assets (production of fundamental and turnover capital); 2. investments in economic assets; 3. investments inside the intellectual valuables. Let’s discuss investment circulation in the process of further production of the material assets (basic and turnover capitals). Its each and every element might be divided into movable and immovable properties. Furniture, mechanisms, turnover capital belongs to the elements of movable physical capital and elements of passive portion of basic capital (buildings, equipment, industrial infrastructure) – to the unmovable one. Further production of the movable physical capital is realized within the business, and of unmovable ones – in the building. Investment activity may be realized within the way of showing of unmovable property, furniture as well as other elements of physical capital at the market, or within the case of absence of needed commodity, inside the way of their production (building). Investment activity could be realized at the expense of diverse sources: own, borrowed, attracted sources for investments, budgetary assignations. Structure of sources depends at organization legislative types of active and newly formed enterprise. Investments may be displayed as in the cash, material forms so inside the face of property rights and intellectual possible. Foreseeing mentioned above, investment circulation inside the further production of a physical capital may be represented inside the following way: Therefore, complete program of investment industry forms total investment-market space. In this space a marketplace of financial investments is filled by real and intellectual investment market. Lamara Qoqiauri True Member of Georgian Academy of Economic Sciences and New-York Academy of Science; Doctor of Economics; Professor

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